Free kindle The Story of the Human Body: Evolution, Health, and DiseaseAuthor Daniel E. Lieberman – Vansonphu.com

Crucial Read The Story of the Human Body is Dr Daniel Lieberman s plain spoken but powerful account of how the rise of bipedalism, the shift to a non fruit based diet, the advent of hunting and gathering, the rise of agriculture, the industrial revolution and the high tech revolution all shaped the key adaptations that typify the modern human body.If you ve ever wondered why modern humans are such a sickly and chunky bunch, Lieberman s got a pretty satisfying answer for you we didn t evolve t Crucial Read The Story of the Human Body is Dr Daniel Lieberman s plain spoken but powerful account of how the rise of bipedalism, the shift to a non fruit based diet, the advent of hunting and gathering, the rise of agriculture, the industrial revolution and the high tech revolution all shaped the key adaptations that typify the modern human body.If you ve ever wondered why modern humans are such a sickly and chunky bunch, Lieberman s got a pretty satisfying answer for you we didn t evolve to be healthy, but instead we were selected to have as many offspring as possible under diverse, challenging conditions As a consequence, we never evolved to make rational choices about what to eat or how to exercise in conditions of abundance and comfort.Lieberman s argument in a nut shell is that Humans evolved in an environment that necessitated eating as much as possible in order to build up fat reserves, so that we could either work our asses off to getfood, or lay low during the times when no food was available, all the while pumping out a steady stream of lil papooses We evolved to be able to stalk and kill wild game in the 100 degree heat, drag that shit back to camp, and start all over again the next time you get hungry So now fast forward to 2015, when you can take your air conditioned car to the Carls Jr drive in and get a 3500 calorie meal for seven dollars that took a 350 calorie expenditure to earn From this perspective it s pretty obvious that we are metabolically mismatched for our current environment This has lead to what Lieberman terms mismatch diseases i.e diseases that occur simply because our body is not adapted to our world of cushy excess Mismatch diseases occur due to 1 a surfeit of energy eating too much obesity diabetes 2 under use not exercising enough osteoporosis lower back pain Lieberman argues that we often treat the symptoms of these issues and ignore the causes, leading to a state of what he terms dysevoloution , a state of affairs in which disadvantageous traits are nurtured and conserved In other words, the proper interventions for obesity, diabetes, osteoporosis and chronic lower back pain are behavioral interventions that target the cause of these issues e.g eating less and exercisingLieberman is not naive about what it will realistically take to change our behaviors though To the contrary, he s well aware of how hard it is, mostly due to millions of years of evolutionary conditioning However, it s not hopeless, and the last few chapters propose possible interventions.Lieberman s summary argument is if culture got us in to this mess, than culture can get us out of it In Lieberman s opinion, the best interventions for mismatch diseases are public health policies that assist us in making better choices Lieberman joins the likes of Sunstein and Thaler Nudge in his endorsement for Libertarian soft Paternalism Libertarian paternalism refers to social policies designed to help people who behave irrationally against their better interests , while interfering only minimally with people who behave rationally.One obvious example being the laws that regulate cigarette smoking We tax the crap out of cigarettes in order to dissuade people from smoking But we don t make it illegal for adults to smoke, provided they don t do it near people who would prefer to not die of lung cancer.Lieberman proposes similar nudges to inhibit consumption of junk food and encourage exercise.If you re not already convinced, you re just going to have to trust me on this one This is the users manual for the modern human Everyone should be equipped with this information Skip it at your own risk.Five Stars It should be stated from the outset that this is not a self help book, but it definitely does raise awareness of some aspects of our modern lives which are silently and steadily harming us Lieberman recognized the root of many of the common chronic non infectious diseases to be evolutionary in nature, specifically evolutionary mismatches He persuasively argues that our bodies which are molded and shaped by the adaptive force of natural selection over millions of years are no match for the It should be stated from the outset that this is not a self help book, but it definitely does raise awareness of some aspects of our modern lives which are silently and steadily harming us Lieberman recognized the root of many of the common chronic non infectious diseases to be evolutionary in nature, specifically evolutionary mismatches He persuasively argues that our bodies which are molded and shaped by the adaptive force of natural selection over millions of years are no match for the abrupt changes brought about by our rapid cultural evolution Think of reading these very words Evolutionary speaking, it is really weird that a bipedal primate spends hours upon hours seating on a chair, and fixating her eyes on a monotonous black and white pattern This is just one of many examples of how so much of our mundane activities are in fact quite bizarre, given what we know about human evolution Undoubtedly, the propensity for adaptive behaviour is one of the hallmarks of our species It has given us a tremendous selective edge to be creative and resourceful in manipulating our environment to our benefit Lieberman doesn t deny this fact However, he believes the extent of which we have changed our environment over just few centuries, or indeed the last few decades is unprecedented by any prior technological innovation In other words, even though we are a highly resilient and adaptable species, maybe this time, the changes are just too much.What s the solution Throwing away all the comfy technological advances and returning back to the good ol hunting and gathering Certainly not That would be foolish But, also treating our bodies as if they have changed profoundly since the time we were hunter gatherers is foolish To be sure, we have changed since then, as it s evident in some local populations that can break down lactose right into adulthood Unfortunately, evolution has not had enough time to deal with many accelerated novel cultural changes Think of the copious amount of sugar, abundant processed foods, comfortable sneakers, eyeglasses, elevators, cars, chairs, air conditioning, and super markets We are living our lives in an unnaturally prolonged positive energy balance Meaning, we eat , while doing less The author is nothing if not unambitious Even after we are armed with all these knowledge, we still want that damn donut, don t we Experiments repeatedly reveal that children and adults instinctively prefer foods that we evolved to crave sweet, starchy, salty and fatty Also, factors like advertising and peer pressure strongly affect our decisions The last chapter s focus is on this problem What do we do with this knowledge How do we change things for the better The author recommends changing the environment itself as the most effectual solution Humans sometimes need to be encouraged and even obliged to act in their own best interest Take, for example, smoking Of course adults have free will, but in the recent decades we have finally recognized it as a public health issue For example, we have regulations prohibiting sale to minors The same kind of logic can be applied to the food industry and maybe even to physical education In the end, we can t eliminate all the risk factors and live completely tuned in to our evolutionary heritage Even if we did, evolution s job is not to keep us in maximum health anyway We probably should find a middle ground between living an austere simple life of our ancestors, and a soft indulgent technically enhanced life I was excited to read this book based on a favorable review in the New York Times I studied human evolution in college so I have a high level of familiarity with the subject matter I started the book eagerly and found the first two sections regarding biological and cultural evolution to be interesting, if repetitive But the final section seemed to be a massive repetition of the author s theories I had a hard time reading to the end and basically skimmed the final third.On a substantive note, I was excited to read this book based on a favorable review in the New York Times I studied human evolution in college so I have a high level of familiarity with the subject matter I started the book eagerly and found the first two sections regarding biological and cultural evolution to be interesting, if repetitive But the final section seemed to be a massive repetition of the author s theories I had a hard time reading to the end and basically skimmed the final third.On a substantive note, it bothered me how negative much of the book seems I cannot change the fact that I was born a modern human in the 20th Century and have access to all of modern life s conveniences At the end the author seems optimistic for the future but throughout the rest of the book, he seems sorry that we aren t all still living as hunter gatherers It bothers me when anthropologists idealize that way of life as better orvaluable than our own I cannot recommend this book to anyone with a working knowledge of human evolution You will be bored and disappointed Had a great time with the audiobook version The book was so interesting I went through the whole thing in 3 days The book explains how the human body evolved over millions of years It goes into some of the incredible adaptations we ve gained to survive on this planet and those that we ve lost in the modern age Highly recommended A landmark book of popular science a lucid, engaging account of how the human body evolved over millions of years and of how the increasing disparity between the jumble of adaptations in our Stone Age bodies and the modern world is fueling the paradox of greater longevity but chronic disease In a book that illuminates, as never before, the evolutionary story of the human body, Daniel Lieberman deftly examines the major transformations that contributed key adaptations to the body the advent of bipedalism the shift to a non fruit based diet the rise of hunting and gathering and our superlative endurance athletic abilities the development of a very large brain and the incipience of modern cultural abilities He elucidates how cultural evolution differs from biological evolution, and how it further transformed our bodies during the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions Lieberman illuminates how these ongoing changes have brought many benefits, but also have created novel conditions to which our bodies are not entirely adapted, resulting in a growing incidence of obesity and new but avoidable diseases, including typediabetes He proposes that many of these chronic illnesses persist and in some cases are intensifying because of dysevolution, a pernicious dynamic whereby only the symptoms rather than the causes of these maladies are treated And finally provocatively he advocates the use of evolutionary information to help nudge, push, and sometimes oblige us to create a salubrious environment With charts and line drawings throughout From the Hardcover edition I was surprised and relieved by what a great read this book was I knew I d be interested in the subject, but I thought that getting through the chapters might be a bit of a slog Nope, a great reading experience I bought another book by Lieberman, in fact. This book makes a decisive case that making informed decisions about diet and lifestyle is only possible through the lens of evolutionary history If you want to know where your body comes from, you need to understand its evolutionary history Why do humans stand and walk on two legs Why are we weak compared to other animals Why are our legs and feet shaped the way they are Why does our spine have a special S curve All of these questions can only be answered through an understanding of evolu This book makes a decisive case that making informed decisions about diet and lifestyle is only possible through the lens of evolutionary history If you want to know where your body comes from, you need to understand its evolutionary history Why do humans stand and walk on two legs Why are we weak compared to other animals Why are our legs and feet shaped the way they are Why does our spine have a special S curve All of these questions can only be answered through an understanding of evolution.Now ask, why do people suffer from obesity, type 2 diabetes, tooth decay, metabolic syndrome, flat feet, nearsightedness, lower back pain, and sleep disorders Daniel Lieberman argues that these questions can only be fully answered by understanding the evolutionary history of our species Thus, Lieberman argues these disease of affluence are examples of a mismatch disease i.e a disease that is primarily caused by our bodies not being sufficiently adapted to novel gene environment contexts We know they re mismatch diseases primarily because they used to be rare and are almost unheard of in hunter gatherer populations Lieberman argues that all of these diseases are in some sense a result of cultural evolution speeding ahead of natural evolution with the result that have humans manufactured a comfy and satisfying environment that is paradoxically unhealthy It turns out that surrounding ourselves with unlimited sources of junk food is a bad idea because humans are programmed to crave food with dense amounts of fat, sugar, starch, and salt.Lieberman is no luddite, and certainly doesn t advocate a return to the caves and giving up on modern science and technology His position isnuanced than many of the extreme black and white positions out there, as befitting the complexity of gene environment interaction In many senses, the agricultural and industrial revolutions have propelled humans to new heights of health and longevity, with modern science curing diseases and fixing people better than ever before At the same time, we are living longer but spending many of those years suffering from chronic, preventable diseases The paradox of the modern world is reduced mortality but greater morbidity i.e living longer, but spendingof those years with an illness of some sort Lieberman argues that too often the incentives of modern medicine aim at fixing symptoms but not the underlying structural causes the toxically comfortable environments we built for ourselves This is one of the best non fiction books I read Highly recommended if you are interested in evolutionary history and how our modern life style often creates mismatches. This is hands down one of the best books I have EVER read It was first recommended to me by a highly respected individual in the fitness industry who owns and runs his own spine clinic as well as teaches science based fitness workshops across the country Unexpectedly my Genetic and Evolutionary Principles of Health class had it as assigned reading for obvious reasons and not only did I get to finally read this amazing book, but also participate in in depth discussions about the ideas prese This is hands down one of the best books I have EVER read It was first recommended to me by a highly respected individual in the fitness industry who owns and runs his own spine clinic as well as teaches science based fitness workshops across the country Unexpectedly my Genetic and Evolutionary Principles of Health class had it as assigned reading for obvious reasons and not only did I get to finally read this amazing book, but also participate in in depth discussions about the ideas presented.Daniel Lieberman is a master at coherently guiding the readers through this sometimes dense material The beginning focuses on what evolution is and how evolution has influenced the development of our species It takes aanthropological view at first, going through our ancient ancestors and why certain adaptations were naturally selected for the answer is almost always Climate Change From there he talks about both the agricultural revolution and the industrial revolution and how that has changes the way evolution impacts our bodies, lives and communities Lastly, he takes amedical approach talking about our modern society and the mismatch diseases that have arises due to our poorly adapted bodies in these rapidly changing environments From back pain, plantar fasciitis, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, allergies, running injuries, osteoporosis, obesity, and he talks about it all I have been eager to find a book to recommend to my personal training clients so they can understand their bodies and the dysfunction that arises because of their modern behavior, and this hit the nail on the head He literally pulled the words right out of my mouth and I often found myself reading later chapters and thinking Thats exactly what I was telling so and so last week He is no alarmist with how we as a society approach our mismatch diseases Instead he explains the science behind it all in easy to follow sections He gives just enough information for you to understand the complexity of the interactions, but holds off on enough scientific jargon that the average reader would easily find their way through Only the last chapter is dedicated to the Okay, so now what feeling most people have about our current healthcare environment Even there he presents rational arguments and predicts your line of reasoning to help guide you to his primary message That we as a society need to start thinking of our healthcare, governments, communities, and personal habits from an evolutionary perspective Reading in the time of Corona The timing of finally getting to read this book is just perfect I first picked it up way back in 2014 and couldn t get through it due to the natural selection pressure from the environment of an evolving academic career using the same tone of the author here Of course, in the meantime, I read a couple of novels to balance the time I gave to reading information dense subject related scientific articles I picked it up again and finished it in 2 weeks Daniel E Reading in the time of Corona The timing of finally getting to read this book is just perfect I first picked it up way back in 2014 and couldn t get through it due to the natural selection pressure from the environment of an evolving academic career using the same tone of the author here Of course, in the meantime, I read a couple of novels to balance the time I gave to reading information dense subject related scientific articles I picked it up again and finished it in 2 weeks Daniel E Lieberman starts by walking through our body design, how we evolved from apes, and what the recent archaeological discoveries have added to our understanding of a 6 million year old process The first section of the book talks about the biomechanics of bipedalism that allowed us to wander in search of a varied diet and better lifestyle amidst climate shifts all of which helped or were triggered as a result of our increase in brain size volume For the last couple of centuries, starting with the industrial revolution, improvements in food processing, and breakthroughs in disease biology medicine, we have come a long way in adapting to anything that environment brings on to counter our lives This led to a general increase in the human life span but unfortunately, our bodies hadn t yet completely adapted to aging If only we had the DNA repair mechanisms of a bacteria, the mutability of a virus, slow metabolic rates of turtles, or generally a great oxidative damage attenuation mechanism that enabled us to live longer without any undesirable consequences Prof Lieberman talks in detail about the mismatch disorders that arise due to this unnatural prolongation of our lives We have yet to decode the basis of diseases linked to aging such as Cancer, Metabolic disorders, autoimmune conditions, etc And finally, he talks about something that I happened to grow a parallel interest for the last 3 years Fitness a lot on Running which was a pleasant surprise , and Nutrition All is not lost Now, that is a very optimistic denouement for this time capsule of a book As a researcher who spent the last 1.5 decades trying to understand human genetics and disease biology, I gained a lot of insight from this book Thank you, Prof Lieberman The Story of the Human Body: Evolution, Health, and Disease


About the Author: Daniel E. Lieberman

Daniel E Lieberman born June 3, 1964 is a paleoanthropologist at Harvard University, where he is the Edwin M Lerner II Professor of Biological Sciences, and chair of the Department of Human Evolutionary Biology He is best known for his research on the evolution of the human head and the evolution of the human body.Lieberman was educated at Harvard University, where he obtained his A.B., M.A and Ph.D degrees He also received a M Phil from Cambridge University He was a Junior Fellow in the Harvard Society of Fellows and taught at Rutgers University and the George Washington University before becoming a professor at Harvard University in 2001 He is on the curatorial board of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, a member of the Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology at Harvard, and the Scientific Executive Committee of the L.S.B Leakey Foundation He is the director of the Skeletal Biology Laboratory at Harvard University.Lieberman studies how and why the human body is the way it is His research combines paleontology, anatomy, physiology and experimental biomechanics in the lab and in the field He has focused to a large extent on why and how humans have such unusual heads He is also well known for his research on the evolution of human locomotion including whether the first hominins were bipeds, why bipedalism evolved, the biomechanical challenges of pregnancy in females, how locomotion affects skeletal function and, most especially, the evolution of running His 2004 paper with Dennis Bramble, Endurance Running and the Evolution of the Genus Homo proposed that humans evolved to run long distances to scavenge and hunt His research on running in general, especially barefoot running was popularized in Chris McDougall s best selling book Born to Run Lieberman is an avid marathon runner, often barefoot, which has earned him the nickname, The Barefoot Professor.


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